Azoospermia (No Sperm Depend): Causes, Therapy, Being pregnant

Azoospermia is an actual impediment for {couples} seeking to conceive.

Azoospermia means a person has no measurable quantity of sperm in his ejaculation to efficiently fertilize the egg.

Though it’s related to male infertility, azoospermia doesn’t essentially imply sterility.

Relying on what’s inflicting the issue, you continue to have a number of possibilities to get pregnant.

You may strive completely different ART strategies, resembling ICSI, IVF, and different therapy alternate options.

Right here, you may get an in depth outlook on what causes azoospermia, the completely different remedies, and the choices to have a child.

What’s azoospermia?

Azoospermia is a medical situation that causes a males’s semen to comprise no sperm.

Right here is the way it works: Sperm is produced within the testicles in a system of small tubes generally known as the seminiferous tubules. The vas deferens (coiled tube) take the mature sperm to the urethra to organize it for ejaculation.

The sperm travels by the reproductive tract and melds with the fluid produced within the seminal ducts. The fluid and the sperm create a white, thick ejaculate – that is the semen. The typical man has 100 to 300 million sperm in his semen.

With azoospermia, there may be zero sperm. You may nonetheless have ejaculate, however there received’t be any sperm.

You might need heard of the medical time period “low sperm depend.” Nevertheless, azoospermia is called “no sperm depend.”

Residing sperm is crucial for a pair to get pregnant.

There aren’t any explicit signs of azoospermia you’ll be able to discover apart from having bother conceiving a organic little one.

Another azoospermia signs you may develop might be associated to different ejaculation issues or well being points, resembling:

  • Swelling, lump, or discomfort across the testes
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Lowered libido
  • Sexually transmitted infections

What proportion of males have azoospermia?

Primarily based on latest statistics, azoospermia impacts virtually 1% of the male inhabitants and round 10% to fifteen% of all males with infertility.

Worldwide, round 9% of {couples} fail to attain being pregnant after a 12 months or extra of normal making an attempt. And 50-60% of them search take care of infertility.

From a world standpoint, that accounts for 140 million individuals of reproductive age being unable to have kids or counting on completely different therapy alternate options to breed.

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Roughly 8% of males get medical assist for infertility-related points. And 1% to 10% of them have a medical drawback that reduces their reproductive potential.

How severe is azoospermia?

Even with efficient stimulation and profitable penetration, the shortage of sperm manufacturing can pose a major problem for males of reproductive age. Analysis exhibits that the being pregnant charge with 0 sperm depend is considerably decrease in comparison with wholesome males.

Being pregnant and embryo implantation charges differ relying on the kind of azoospermia. There’s a drastically lowered being pregnant charge in non-obstructive azoospermia (11.3%) versus obstructive azoospermia (31.9%).

Many {couples} seeking to conceive additionally need to know, when does your physique cease producing sperm? A person with out azoospermia by no means stops producing sperm. However, sperm manufacturing drastically decreases with age.

Semen high quality, sperm quantity, semen depend, and sperm motility have a serious function to play in profitable conception.

When sperm transfer, there may be regular sperm depend, motility, and morphology, then the chances of conception are a lot greater.

However, since solely the strongest, quickest, and healthiest sperm get to fertilize the egg, {couples} usually need to strive a number of occasions to get pregnant.

Nevertheless, when you might have a severe abnormality, like azoospermia, that’s when the chances of conception drastically lower.

On one other word, males with azoospermia are susceptible to growing most cancers. Information suggests there’s a attainable etiology between most cancers growth and azoospermia. So, if there’s a historical past of tumors in your loved ones, then it’s best to seek the advice of a specialist.

Sorts of azoospermia

There are two essential varieties of azoospermia:

  • Obstructive azoospermia (OA) – Obstructive azoospermia implies that the physique should still make sperm. It’s simply not getting out. Obstructive azoospermia can occur from blockage, surgical procedure (i.e., vasectomy), trauma, or congenital defects. Eradicating the obstruction or getting the semen out instantly will help.
  • Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) – Non-obstructive azoospermia is a severe and infrequently extreme type of male infertility. Non-obstructive azoospermia means there’s a failure of spermatogenesis within the testis. Nonobstructive azoospermia can happen as a result of gonadotropin deficiency or intrinsic testicular impairment. In males who don’t have sufficient gonadotropins, their testicular measurement doesn’t improve throughout puberty, and the testes received’t be able to producing their very own sperm and testosterone.
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What causes a person to don’t have any sperm in his semen?

The causes of azoospermia depend upon the kind of drawback you might have. A genetic situation can affect the Y chromosome and trigger 10% to fifteen% of instances of low sperm depend or no sperm depend. However, there are different causes of azoospermia which will additionally play a task.

Non-obstructive azoospermia causes

Here’s a listing of a number of the identified causes of NOA:

  • Genetic illness
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Y Chromosome deletion
  • Toxins and radiation
  • Drugs
  • Varicocele
  • Karyotype abnormality

Different instances of NOA embrace extreme smoking, drug abuse, and ingesting.

Gene defects generally is a main contributor to NOA. These genetic abnormalities embrace a congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), cystic fibrosis, bilateral epididymal obstruction, Younger syndrome, and unilateral absence of the vas deferens.

Having mumps orchitis in late puberty, anorchia (no testes at delivery), Sertoli cell-only syndrome (testicles incapable of manufacturing sperm), spermatogenic arrest (testicles that may’t create mature sperm), or cryptorchidism (undescended testicle) can result in NOA.

The Y chromosome may trigger azoospermia. Y chromosome deletion leads to as much as 10% of azoospermia instances. If a father with Y chromosome deletion had been to efficiently conceive a baby, then the son can inherit the defect.

Some exposures may have an effect on sperm manufacturing. These embrace radiation remedy, chemotherapy, and publicity to heavy metals. When you should get chemo, you must freeze the sperm forward of time.

Seek the advice of with a healthcare supplier in case your taking drugs that may have an effect on the sperm cells. These can embrace anti-inflammatory brokers (resembling Colchicine), antineoplastic brokers (resembling Busulfan, Chlorambucil, and Cyclophosphamide), immunosuppressants, and so forth.

Obstructive azoospermia causes

Obstructive azoospermia is often much less extreme than nonobstructive instances. It may be handled, and sufferers might have the potential to revive their fertility. However, to search out the suitable azoospermia therapy, it is very important acknowledge the causes.

These embrace:

  • Blockage
  • Surgical procedure
  • Trauma
  • Gene defects

Sufferers can develop an obstruction within the vas deferens, epididymis, or ejaculatory duct. Ejaculatory duct obstruction is a comparatively widespread drawback.

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Numerous well being points can result in a blockage. These embrace irritation and infections (like epididymitis and sexually transmitted infections).

Having a latest harm to the scrotum, testes, or penis may trigger a buildup and pressure the semen to get caught.

Genetic defects, like cystic fibrosis, can result in azoospermia. It will possibly trigger an ejaculatory duct cyst. Any earlier surgical procedure, particularly a vasectomy or hernia restore, can set off an obstruction.


An correct azoospermia analysis begins with 2 semen samples collected at completely different occasions. The sperm pattern is taken to a lab for additional testing.

Specialists look at the semen beneath a high-powered microscope and spin the take a look at pattern in a centrifuge.

Apart from a semen evaluation, the physician may also discuss:

  • How lengthy you’ve been making an attempt to conceive
  • Any sicknesses, surgical procedures, or accidents to the pelvic ground
  • Historical past of sexually transmitted infections
  • Infections to the reproductive tract or urinary tract
  • Medical remedy
  • Alcohol or drug abuse
  • Hereditary defects (i.e., cystic fibrosis, lowered fertility charge, and so forth.)

Earlier than the semen evaluation evaluations, the physician may additionally counsel a bodily examination. The aim is to see if there are any indicators of an absence of maturation of the reproductive organs. They’ll test the scrotum and penis for swelling, tenderness, or ache.

A healthcare supplier may additionally counsel extra testing resembling:

  • Genetic testing
  • Ultrasound or X-rays scans
  • Tissue sampling of the testes
  • Imaging to search out indicators of issues with the pituitary gland or mind
  • Urine pattern, in case of issues with the prostate gland


The therapy of azoospermia varies based mostly on what’s inflicting the issue.

If the medicine you’re utilizing is inflicting azoospermia, then stopping the causative agent can restore sperm manufacturing after a while. This may also be a sensible treatment for azoospermia attributable to drug or alcohol abuse.

If azoospermia is a hormonal challenge, like hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, then gonadotropin alternative remedy (GRT) or/and testosterone alternative remedy (TRT) will help. Solely a physician can counsel the very best hormone remedy.

If there’s a blockage, reconstruction may assist. Azoospermia surgical procedure, like microsurgery, will help repair the anatomical abnormality.

If surgical procedure shouldn’t be attainable, males can use sperm extraction from the testis (TESE) or epididymis (PESA). They’ve sperm retrieval success charge for IVF (In vitro fertilization) or ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection).

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Nevertheless, not all azoospermia instances might be cured. Seek the advice of a specialist to search out potential remedies that may assist with zero sperm depend.

Choices for being pregnant with azoospermia

My husband has no sperm, how can I get pregnant? To have offspring, the choices {couples} have embrace sperm aspiration, testicular biopsy, or donor sperm.

Males with obstructive azoospermia can attempt to have their sperm extracted instantly from the epididymis or testicles. Choices like testicular sperm extraction have the very best probabilities of discovering a usable sperm pattern.

Testicular biopsy, also called Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE), can be utilized for each NOA and OA. If none of those choices work, the following possibility to think about may be donor sperm.

Donor sperm is psychologically and medically pre-screened to make sure its well being state and comes with a comparatively excessive success charge.

Another choice is to get counseling. Infertility procedures may have an emotional toll. Fertility counseling will help you navigate this troublesome interval in your life.

It will possibly assist {couples} course of their emotions, reduce stress and grief, and make higher selections for the long run.

Can azoospermia be prevented?

You may’t forestall genetic abnormalities. In case your azoospermia shouldn’t be genetic-related, then a number of the following prevention ways will help lower the chances of this drawback.

  • Keep away from bodily actions that may harm the penis, scrotum, or rectum.
  • Verify the dangers and potential negative effects of the medication you take.
  • Don’t expose the testes to extremely popular temperatures for a very long time.
  • Keep away from exposing the pelvic space to radiation (if attainable).


Each case of azoospermia is completely different. This well being challenge can have a notable affect on a person’s means to conceive. However that doesn’t imply conception is totally out of the image.

Relying on the underlying trigger, some instances of azoospermia might be handled. Seek the advice of together with your healthcare workforce to search out remedies or different choices that may assist.

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